Publications

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Journal

146

Boris Martinez, Enma Coyote Ixen, Rachel Hall-Clifford, Michel Juarez, Ann C. Miller, Aaron Francis, Camilo E. Valderrama, Lisa Stroux, Gari D. Clifford and Peter Rohloff, mHealth intervention to improve the continuum of maternal and perinatal care in rural guatemala: a pragmatic, randomized controlled feasibility trial, Reproductive Health 2018 15:120, 2018 July 4

145

Reinertsen E, Clifford GD, A review of physiological and behavioral monitoring with digital sensors for neuropsychiatric illnesses, Physiol Meas. 2018 Apr 19. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aabf64

144

Nemati, Holder A, Razmi F, Stanley MD, Clifford GD, Buchman TG, An interpretable machine learning model for accurate prediction of sepsis in the ICU, Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr;46(4):547-553. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002936.

143

Bolagh SNG, Clifford GD, Subject selection on a riemannian manifold for unsupervised cross-subject seizure detection, Published December 1, 2017 Machine Learning (stat.ML) arXiv preprint arXiv:1712.00465.

142

Shashikumar SP, Stanley MD, Sadiq I, Li Q, Holder A, Clifford GD, Nemati S, Early sepsis detection in critical care patients using multiscale blood pressure and heart rate dynamics, J Electrocardiol. 2017 Nov - Dec;50(6):739-743. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.08.013.

141

Velardo C, Shah SA, Gibson O, Clifford GD, Heneghan C, Rutter H, Farmer A, Tarassenko L, Digital health system for personalised COPD long-term management, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2017 Feb 20;17(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s12911-017-0414-8.

140

Shashikumar SP, Li Q, Clifford GD, Nemati S, Multiscale network representation of physiological time series for early prediction of sepsis, Physiol Meas. 2017 Nov 30;38(12):2235-2248. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa9772.

139

Stroux L, Redman CW, Georgieva A, Payne SJ, Clifford GD, Doppler‐based fetal heart rate analysis markers for the detection of early intrauterine growth restriction, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 Nov;96(11):1322-1329. doi: 10.1111/aogs.13228.

138

Clifford RH, Roche S, Fathima S, Palmius N, Hollingworth K, Kennedy J, Merida J, Stephens M, Lavalley R, Rohloff P, Garcia P, Patrick S, Clifford GD, Sustainable technology for surgical referrals: Pilot implementation of an electronic referral system for short-term surgical missions, Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries http://www.jhidc.org/ Vol. 11 No. 2, 2017 Submitted: June 29th, 2017 Accepted: August 6th, 2017

137

Muirhead L, Hall P, Jones‐Taylor C, Clifford GD, Felton‐Williams T, Williams K, Critical questions: Advancing the health of female Veterans, J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2017 Oct;29(10):571-580. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12490.

136

Poian GD, Rozell CJ, Bernardini R, Rinaldo R, Clifford GD Matched filtering for heart rate sstimation on compressive sensing ECG measurements, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2017 Sep 14. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2752422.

135

Liu C, Springer D, Clifford GD, Performance of an open-source heart sound segmentation algorithm on eight independent databases, Physiol Meas. 2017 Aug 1;38(8):1730-1745. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa6e9f.

134

Clifford GD, Liu C, Moody B, Millet J, Schmidt S, Li Q, Silva I, Mark RG, Recent advances in heart sound analysis, Physiol Meas. 2017 Aug 1;38(8):E10-E25. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa7ec8.

133

Whitaker BM, Suresha PB, Liu C, Clifford GD, Anderson DV, Combining sparse coding and time-domain features for heart sound classification, Physiol Meas. 2017 Jul 31;38(8):1701-1713. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa7623.

132

Valderrama CE, Marzbanrad F, Stroux L, Clifford GD, Template-based quality assessment of the doppler ultrasound signal for fetal monitoring, Front. Front Physiol. 2017 Jul 18;8:511. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00511.

131

Reinertsen E, Osipov M, Liu C, Kane JM, Petrides G, Clifford GD, Continuous assessment of schizophrenia using heart rate and accelerometer data, Physiol Meas. 2017 Jun 27;38(7):1456-1471. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa724d.

130

Poian GD, Liu C, Bernardini R, Rinaldo R, Clifford GD, Atrial fibrillation detection on compressed sensed ECG, Physiol Meas. 2017 Jun 27;38(7):1405-1425. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa7652.

129

Oster J, Clifford GD, Acquisition of electrocardiogram signals during magnetic resonance imaging, Physiol Meas. 2017 Jun 22;38(7):R119-R142. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa6e8c.

128

Marzbanrad F, Khandoker AH, Kimura Y, Palaniswami M, Clifford GD, Assessment of fetal development using cardiac valve intervals, Front Physiol. 2017 May 17;8:313. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00313.

127

Reinertsen E, Nemati S, Vest AN, Vaccarino V, Lampert R, Shah AJ, Clifford GD, Heart rate-based window segmentation improves accuracy of classifying posttraumatic stress disorder using heart rate variability measures, Physiol Meas. 2017 Jun;38(6):1061-1076. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa6e9c.

126

Hoyer D, Żebrowski J, Cysarz D, Gonçalves H, Pytlik A, Amorim-Costa C, Bernardes J, Ayres-de-Campos D, Witte W, Schleußner E, Stroux L, Redman C, Georgieva A, Payne S, Clifford GD, Signorini MG, Magenes G, Andreotti F, Malberg H, Zaunseder S, Lakhno I, Schneider U, Monitoring fetal maturation—objectives, techniques and indices of autonomic function, Physiol Meas. 2017 May;38(5):R61-R88. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa5fca.

125

Liu C, Li Q, Suresh PB, Vest A, Clifford GD, Multi-source features and support vector machine for heart rhythm classification, Computing in Cardiology Vol 44 DOI:10.22489/CinC.2017.162-294 24-27.

124

Martinez B, Clifford RH, Coyote E, Stroux L, Valderrama CE, Aaron C, Francis A, Hendren C, Rohloff P, Clifford GD, Agile development of a smartphone app for perinatal monitoring in a resource-constrained setting, J Health Inform Dev Ctries. 2017;11(1). pii: http://www.jhidc.org/index.php/jhidc/article/view/158/212.

123

Mahdi A, Clifford GD, Payne SJ, A model for generating synthetic arterial blood pressure, Physiol Meas. 2017 Mar;38(3):477-488. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa51b8.

122

Liu C, Springer D, Li Q, Moody B, Juan RA, Chorro FJ, Castells F, Roig JM, Silva I, Johnson AE, Syed Z, Schmidt SE, Papadaniil CD, Hadjileontiadis L, Naseri H, Moukadem A, Dieterlen A, Brandt C, Tang H, Samieinasab M, Samieinasab MR, Sameni R, Mark RG, Clifford GD, An open access database for the evaluation of heart sound algorithms, Physiol Meas. 2016 Dec;37(12):2181-2213.

121

Stroux L, Martinez B, Ixen EC, King N, Clifford RH, Rohloff P, Clifford GD, An mHealth monitoring system for traditional birth attendant-led antenatal risk assessment in rural Guatemala, J Med Eng Technol. 2016 Oct - Nov;40(7-8):356-371.

120

Springer DB, Brennan T, Ntusi N, Abdelrahman HY, Zühlke LJ, Mayosi BM, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Automated signal quality assessment of mobile phone-recorded heart sound signals, J Med Eng Technol. 2016 Oct - Nov;40(7-8):342-355.

119

Tsanas A, Saunders KEA, Bilderbeck AC, Palmius N, Osipov M, Clifford GD, Goodwin GM, Vos MD, Daily longitudinal self-monitoring of mood variability in bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, J Affect Disord. 2016 Nov 15;205:225-233. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.06.065.

118

Behar J, Zhu T, Oster J, Niksch A, Mah DY, Chun T, Greenberg J, Tanner C, Harrop J, Sameni R, Ward J, Wolfberg AJ, Clifford GD, Evaluation of the fetal QT interval using non-invasive fetal ECG technology, Physiol Meas. 2016 Sep;37(9):1392-403. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/37/9/1392.

117

Breen C, Zhu T, Bond R, Finlay D, Clifford GD, The evaluation of an open source online training system for teaching 12 lead electrocardiographic interpretation, J Electrocardiol. 2016 May-Jun;49(3):454-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.02.003.

116

Andreotti A, Behar J, Zaunseder S, Oster J, Clifford GD, An open-source framework for stress-testing non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms, Physiol Meas. 2016 May;37(5):627-48. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/37/5/627

115

Behar J, Andreotti F, Zaunseder S, Oster J, Clifford GD, A practical guide to non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram extraction and analysis, Physiol Meas. 2016 May;37(5):R1-R35. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/37/5/R1.

114

Springer DB, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Logistic regression-hsmm-based heart sound segmentation, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2016 Apr;63(4):822-32. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2015.2475278.

113

Clifford GD, The use of sustainable and scalable health care technologies in developing countries, Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Health Volume 3 (Pages 35-46) March 3 2016

112

Johnson A EW, Ghassemi MM, Nemati S, Niehaus KE, Clifton DA, Clifford GD, Machine learning and decision support in critical care, Proc IEEE Inst Electr Electron Eng. 2016 Feb;104(2):444-466

111

Li Q, Liu C, Oster J, Clifford GD, Signal processing and feature selection preprocessing for classification in noisy healthcare data, Machine Learning for Healthcare Technologies Volume 2 (Pages 33-58) 2016

110

Zhu T, Clifford GD, Clifton DA, A Bayesian model for fusing biomedical labels, Ann Biomed Eng. 2015 Dec;43(12):2892-902. doi: 10.1007/s10439-015-1344-1.

109

Li Q, Clifford GD, Signal Processing: False Alarm Reduction, Secondary Analysis of Electronic Health Records (Pages 391-403) 2016 doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43742-2_27.

108

Raghu A, Praveen D, Peiris D, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Engineering a mobile health tool for resource-poor settings to assess and manage cardiovascular disease risk: SMARThealth study, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2015 Apr 29;15:36. doi: 10.1186/s12911-015-0148-4.

107

Zhu T, Dunkley N, Behar J, Clifton DA, Clifford GD, Fusing continuous-valued medical labels using a Bayesian model, Ann Biomed Eng. 2015 Dec;43(12):2892-902. doi: 10.1007/s10439-015-1344-1

106

Oster J, Clifford GD, Impact of the presence of noise on RR interval-based atrial fibrillation detection, J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec;48(6):947-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.08.013

105

Peace A, Ramsewak A, Cairns A, Finlay D, Guldenring D, Clifford GD, Bond R, Using computerised interactive response technology to assess electrocardiographers and for aggregating diagnoses, J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec;48(6):995-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.08.003.

104

Oster J, Llinares R, Payne S, Tse ZTH, Schmidt EJ, Clifford GD, Comparison of three artificial models of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on the electrocardiogram, Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2015;18(13):1400-17. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2014.909090.

103

Osipov M, Behzadi Y, Kane JM, Petrides G, Clifford GD, Objective identification and analysis of physiological and behavioral signs of schizophrenia, J Ment Health. 2015;24(5):276-82. doi: 10.3109/09638237.2015.1019048

102

Oster J, Clifford GD, Signal quality indices for state space electrophysiological signal processing and vice versa, Advanced State Space Methods for Neural and Clinical Data 31 Aug 2015 doi:10.1017/CBO9781139941433.016.

101

Roebuck A, Clifford GD, Comparison of standard and novel signal analysis approaches to obstructive sleep apnea classification, Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2015 Aug 27;3:114. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2015.00114

100

Raghu A, Praveen D, Peiris D, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Implications of cardiovascular disease risk assessment using the WHO/ISH risk prediction charts in rural India, PLoS One. 2015 Aug 19;10(8):e0133618. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133618

99

Silva I, Moody B, Behar J, Johnson A, Oster J, Clifford GD, Moody GB, Robust detection of heart beats in multimodal data, Physiol Meas. 2015 Aug;36(8):1629-44. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/36/8/1629

98

Johnson A EW, Behar J, Andreotti F, Clifford GD, Oster J, Multimodal heart beat detection using signal quality indices, Physiol Meas. 2015 Aug;36(8):1665-77. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/36/8/1665

97

Pimentel M AF, Santos MD, Springer DB, Clifford GD, Heart beat detection in multimodal physiological data using a hidden semi-Markov model and signal quality indices, Physiol Meas. 2015 Aug;36(8):1717-27. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/36/8/1717.

96

Saunders K, Bilderbeck AC, Panchal P, Brett D, Clifford GD, Harmer CJ, Nobre AC, Harrison PJ, Geddes JR, Goodwin GM, Acceptability and tolerability of ambulatory monitoring in bipolar disorder: a patient perspective, Bipolar Disorders Volume 17. 2015

95

Tsanas A, Clifford GD, Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing, Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Apr 8;9:181. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00181.

94

Oster J, Behar J, Sayadi O, Nemati S, Johnson A, Clifford GD, Semi-supervised ECG ventricular beat classification with novelty detection based on switching kalman filters, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015 Sep;62(9):2125-34. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2015.2402236.

93

Clifford GD, Oster J, ISCE Symposium–Claire Sommargren, Editor Session I: Papers Submitted from Abstracts–Chairs: Marek Malik and Dewar Finlay, Journal of Electrocardiology Volume 48 Issue 6 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0736(15)00345-3.

92

Bond RR, Kligfield PD, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Guldenring D, Breen C, Clifford GD, Wagner GS, Novel approach to documenting expert ECG interpretation using eye tracking technology: A historical and biographical representation of the late Dr Rory Childers in action, J Electrocardiol. 2015 Jan-Feb;48(1):43-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2014.10.017.

91

Behar J, Roebuck A, Shahid M, Daly J, Hallack A, Palmius N, Stradling J, Clifford GD, SleepAp: an automated obstructive sleep apnoea screening application for smartphones, IEEE J Biomed Health Inform. 2015 Jan;19(1):325-31. doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2014.2307913.

90

Seely A JE, Bravi A, Herry C, Green G, Longtin A, Ramsay T, Fergusson D, McIntyre L, Kubelik D, Maziak DE, Ferguson N, Brown SM, Mehta S, Martin C, Rubenfeld G, Jacono FJ, Clifford GD, Fazekas A, Marshall J, Erratum to: Do heart and respiratory rate variability improve prediction of extubation outcomes in critically ill patients? Crit Care. 2014 Apr 8;18(2):R65. doi: 10.1186/cc13822.

89

Li Q, Rajagopalan C, Clifford GD, A machine learning approach to multi-level ECG signal quality classification, Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2014 Dec;117(3):435-47. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.09.002

88

Clark IA, Niehaus KE, Duff EP, Di Simplicio MC, Clifford GD, Smith SM, Mackay CE, Woolrich MW, Holmes EA, First steps in using machine learning on fMRI data to predict intrusive memories of traumatic film footage, Behav Res Ther. 2014 Nov;62:37-46. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.07.010

87

Bond RR, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Kligfield PD, Guldenring D, Breen C, Gallagher AG, Daly MJ, Clifford GD, Assessing computerized eye tracking technology for gaining insight into expert interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram: an objective quantitative approach, J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec;47(6):895-906. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2014.07.011

86

Praveen D, Patel A, Raghu A, Clifford GD, Maulik PK, Abdul AM, Mogulluru K, Tarassenko L, MacMahon S, Peiris D, SMARTHealth India: development and field evaluation of a mobile clinical decision support system for cardiovascular diseases in rural India, JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2014 Dec 8;2(4):e54. doi: 10.2196/mhealth.3568.

85

Gederi E, Nemati S, Edwards BA, Clifford GD, Malhotra A, Wellman A, Model-based estimation of loop gain using spontaneous breathing: a validation study, Physiol Neurobiol. 2014 Sep 15;201:84-92. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2014.07.002.

84

Clifford GD, Gederi E, Out of Touch: From audio recordings to phone apps to mattress sensors, noncontact systems offer a less cumbersome way to monitor sleep, IEEE Pulse. 2014 Sep-Oct;5(5):19-21. doi: 10.1109/MPUL.2014.2339253.

83

Behar J, Andreotti F, Zaunseder S, Li Q, Oster J, Clifford GD, An ECG simulator for generating maternal-foetal activity mixtures on abdominal ECG recordings, Physiol Meas. 2014 Aug;35(8):1537-50. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/35/8/1537

82

Behar J, Oster J, Clifford GD, Combining and benchmarking methods of foetal ECG extraction without maternal or scalp electrode data, Physiol Meas. 2014 Aug;35(8):1569-89. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/35/8/1569

81

Clifford GD, Silva I, Behar J, Moody GB, Non-invasive fetal ECG analysis, Physiol Meas. 2014 Aug;35(8):1521-36. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/35/8/1521.

80

Behar J, Johnson A, Clifford GD, Oster J, A comparison of single channel fetal ECG extraction methods, Ann Biomed Eng. 2014 Jun;42(6):1340-53. doi: 10.1007/s10439-014-0993-9

79

Li Q, Rajagopalan C, Clifford GD, Ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia classification using a machine learning approach, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2014 Jun;61(6):1607-13. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2275000.

78

Tsanas A, Zañartu M, Little MA, Fox C, Ramig LO, Clifford GD, Robust fundamental frequency estimation in sustained vowels: detailed algorithmic comparisons and information fusion with adaptive Kalman filtering, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 135, 2885 (2014); https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4870484.

77

Seely AJ E, Bravi A, Herry C, Green G, Longtin A, Ramsay T, Fergusson D, McIntyre L, Kubelik D, Maziak DE, Ferguson N, Brown SM, Mehta S, Martin C, Rubenfeld G, Jacono FJ, Clifford GD, Fazekas A, Marshall J, Do heart and respiratory rate variability improve prediction of extubation outcomes in critically ill patients? Critical Care https://doi.org/10.1186/cc13822.

76

Zhu T, Johnson A EW, Behar J, Clifford GD, Crowd-Sourced Annotation of ECG Signals Using Contextual Information, Annals of Biomedical Engineering April 2014, Volume 42, Issue 4.

75

Tse ZTH, Dumoulin CL, Clifford GD, Schweitzer J, Qin L, Oster J, Jerosch-Herold M, Kwong RY, Michaud G, Stevenson WG, Schmidt EJ, 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional 12-lead ECG for MR imaging and intra-MR intervention, Magn Reson Med. 2014 Mar; 71(3): 1336–1347. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24744.

74

Tse ZTH, Dumoulin CL, Clifford GD, Schweitzer J, Qin L, Oster J, Jerosch‐Herold M, Kwong RY, Michaud G, Stevenson WG, Schmidt EJ, A 1.5 T MRI‐conditional 12‐lead electrocardiogram for MRI and intra‐MR intervention, Magn Reson Med. 2014 March; 71(3): 1336–1347. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24744.

73

Roebuck A, Monasterio V, Gederi E, Osipov M, Behar J, Malhotra A, Penzel T, Clifford GD, A review of signals used in sleep analysis, Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine Physiological Measurement, Volume 35, Number 1 December 17 2013

72

Krug JW, Rose G, Clifford GD, Oster J, ECG-based gating in ultra high field cardiovascular magnetic resonance using an independent component analysis approach, Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-15-104.

71

Mayaud L, Tarassenko L, Annane D, Clifford GD, Predictive power of heart rate complexity to estimate severity in severe sepsis patients, Journal of Critical Care Volume 28 Issue 6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.07.029.

70

Tarassenko L, Velardo C, Shah A, Gibson O, Clifford GD, Heneghan C, Rutter H, Farmer A, M-health for long-term management of COPD, International Journal of Integrated Care Volume 13 Issue 7 2013

69

Praveen D, Patel A, McMahon S, Prabhakaran D, Clifford GD, Maulik PK, Joshi R, Jan S, Heritier S, Peiris D, A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial, Implement Sci. 2013 Nov 25;8:137. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-8-137

68

Behar J, Roebuck A, Domingos JS, Gederi E, Clifford GD, A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones, Physiol Meas. 2013 Jul;34(7):R29-46. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/7/R29

67

Mayaud L, Lai PS, Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Celi L AG, Annane D, Dynamic data during hypotensive episode improves mortality predictions among patients with sepsis and hypotension, Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr; 41(4): 954–962. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182772adb.

66

Johnson A EW, Clifford GD, Risk-adjustment of patient subpopulations in the intensive care unit using oasis, a novel severity score Journal of Critical Care Volume 28 Issue 1 (Pages e20-e21) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.10.056.

65

Behar J, Oster J, Li Q, Clifford GD, ECG Signal Quality During Arrhythmia and its Application to False Alarm Reduction, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013 Jun;60(6):1660-6. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2240452

64

Johnson A EW, Kramer AA, Clifford GD, Supplemental Digital Content A new severity of illness scale using a subset of APACHE data elements shows comparable predictive accuracy, Critical Care Medicine Volume 41 Issue 7 2013

63

Krug JW, Rose G, Clifford GD, Oster J, Improved ECG based gating in ultra high field cardiac MRI using an independent component analysis approach, Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 30 January 2013 https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-15-S1-W33.

62

Krug JW, Rose G, Stucht D, Clifford GD, Oster J, Limitations of VCG based gating methods in ultra high field cardiac MRI, Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 30 January 2013 https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-15-S1-W19.

61

Li Q, Clifford GD, Signal quality and data fusion for false alarm reduction in the intensive care unit, Journal of Electrocardiology Volume 45 Issue 6 (Pages 596-603) November 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2012.07.015.

60

Behar J, Oster J, Li Q, Clifford GD, Signal quality indices and data fusion for determining clinical acceptability of electrocardiograms, Physiol Meas. 2012 Sep;33(9):1419-33. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/33/9/1419

59

Li Q, Clifford GD, Dynamic time warping and machine learning for signal quality assessment of pulsatile signals, Physiol Meas. 2012 Sep;33(9):1491-501. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/33/9/1491

58

Monasterio V, Burgess F, Clifford GD, Robust classification of neonatal apnoea-related desaturations, Physiol Meas. 2012 Sep;33(9):1503-16. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/33/9/1503

57

Oster J, Geist M, Pietquin O, Clifford GD, Filtering of pathological ventricular rhythms during MRI scanning, Proceedings of the seventh International Workshop on Biosignal Interpretation 2 Jul 2012.

56

Roebuck A, Clifford GD, Multiscale Entropy applied to audio data for classifying Obstructive Sleep Apnoea patients, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Volume 185 2012.

55

Tse ZTH, Dumoulin C, Clifford GD, Oster J, Jerosch-Herold M, Kwong R, Stevenson W, Schmidt EJ, Cardiac MRI with concurrent physiological monitoring using MRI-compatible 12-lead ECG, Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Volume 14 2012

54

Oster J, Llinares R, Tse ZTH, Schmidt E, Clifford GD, Realistic MHD modeling based on MRI blood flow measurements, Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2015;18(13):1400-17. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2014.909090

53

Clifford GD, Clifton D, Wireless Technology in Disease Management and Medicine, Annu Rev Med. 2012;63:479-92. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-051210-114650

52

Tse ZTH, Dumoulin CL, Clifford GD, Jerosch-Herold M, Kacher D, Kwong R, Stevenson WG, Schmidt EJ, Improved R-wave detection for enhanced cardiac Gating using an MRI-compatible 12-lead ECG and multi-channel analysis, Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Volume 13 2011

51

Campana LM, Clifford GD, Trinder J, Pittman SD, Malhotra A, A possible method to predict response to non-pharmacological insomnia therapy, J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Aug 15; 7(4): 370–375. doi: 10.5664/JCSM.1192.

50

Clifford GD, Sameni R, Ward J, JRobinson J, Wolfberg AJ, Clinically accurate fetal ECG parameters acquired from maternal abdominal sensors, Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jul;205(1):47.e1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.02.066

49

Hug CW, Clifford GD, Reisner AT, Clinician blood pressure documentation of stable intensive care patients: an intelligent archiving agent has a higher association with future hypotension, Crit Care Med. 2011 May; 39(5): 1006–1014. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31820eab8e.

48

Nemati S, Abdala O, Bazin V, Yim-Yeh S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD, A non-parametric surrogate-based test of significance for T-wave alternans detection, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 May;58(5):1356-64. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2010.2047859

47

Saeed M, Villarroel M, Reisner AT, Clifford GD, Lehman L, Moody G, Heldt T, Kyaw TH, Moody B, Mark RG, Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II): a public-access intensive care unit database, Crit Care Med. 2011 May;39(5):952-60. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31820a92c6.

46

Nemati S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD, T-wave alternans patterns during sleep in healthy, cardiac disease, and sleep apnea patients, J Electrocardiol. 2011 Mar–Apr; 44(2): 126–130. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.10.036.

45

Nemati S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD, Nonparametric, nonstationary noise rejection in T-wave alternans analysis reveals unusual dynamics, Journal of Electrocardiology Volume 44 Issue 2 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.12.019.

44

Li Q, Clifford GD, Signal quality indices and data fusion for determining acceptability of electrocardiograms collected in noisy ambulatory environments, Computing in Cardiology Volume 38. 2011

43

Nemati S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD, Data fusion for improved respiration rate estimation, EURASIP J Adv Signal Process. 2010;2010:926305.

42

Monasterio V, Clifford GD, Martınez JP, Comparison of Source Separation Techniques for Multilead T-Wave Alternans Detection in the ECG, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:5367-70. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5626356

41

Sayadi O, Shamsollahi MB, Clifford GD, Synthetic ECG generation and Bayesian filtering using a Gaussian wave-based dynamical model,

Physiol Meas. 2010 Oct; 31(10): 1309–1329. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/31/10/002.

40

Monasterio V, Clifford GD, Laguna P, Martinez JP, A multilead scheme based on periodic component analysis for T-wave alternans analysis in the ECG, Ann Biomed Eng. 2010 Aug;38(8):2532-41. doi: 10.1007/s10439-010-0029-z

39

Nemati S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD, Research Article Data Fusion for Improved Respiration Rate Estimation, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013 Jul;60(7):1946-53. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2246160

38

Campana LM, RL Owens, Clifford GD, Pittman SD, Malhotra A, Phase-rectified signal averaging as a sensitive index of autonomic changes with aging, J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Jun;108(6):1668-73. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00013.2010

37

Clifford GD, Nemati S, Sameni R, An artificial vector model for generating abnormal electrocardiographic rhythms, Physiol Meas. 2010 May; 31(5): 595–609. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/31/5/001.

36

Tse ZTH, Dumoulin C, Clifford GD, Jerosch-Herald M, Kacher D, Kwong R, Stevenson WG, Schmidt EJ, MRI-compatible 12-lead ECGs with MHD separation: application to cardiac MRI gating, physiological monitoring and noninvasive cardiac-output estimation, J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Jun;108(6):1668-73. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00013.2010

35

Sameni R, Clifford GD, A review of fetal ECG signal processing; issues and promising directions, Open Pacing Electrophysiol Ther J. 2010 Jan 1;3:4-20.

34

Sameni R, Clifford GD, Ward J, Robertson J, Pettigrew C, Wolfberg A, 664: Accuracy of fetal heart rate acquired from sensors on the maternal abdomen compared to a fetal scalp electrode, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 201 Issue 6 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2009.10.529.

33

Sayadi O, Shamsollahi MB, Clifford GD, Robust detection of premature ventricular contractions using a wave-based Bayesian framework,
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010 Feb; 57(2): 353–362. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2009.2031243.

32

Clifford GD, Sameni R, Ward J, Robertson J, Pettigrew C, Wolfberg A, Comparing the fetal ST-segment acquired using a FSE and abdominal sensors, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 201 Issue 6 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2009.10.535.

31

Li Q, Mark RG, Clifford GD, Artificial arterial blood pressure artifact models and an evaluation of a robust blood pressure and heart rate estimator, BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2009 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-8-13.

30

Clifford GD, Long WJ, Moody GB, Szolovits P, Robust parameter extraction for decision support using multimodal intensive care data, Philosophical Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2009 Jan 28;367(1887):411-29. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0157.

29

Schmidt E, Clifford GD, Jerosch-Herald M, Kwong R, Epstein L, Kacher D, Dumoulin C, Jolesz F, MRI-compatible 12-lead ECG: Improved MHD suppression, ischemia monitoring, and non-invasive cardiac output, Proc Intl Soc Mag Reson Med. Hawaii: ISMRM Volume 4778.

28

Celi LA, Sarmenta L, Rotberg J, Marcelo A, Clifford GD, Mobile care (moca) for remote diagnosis and screening, J Health Inform Dev Ctries. 2009 3(1): 17–21.

27

Clifford GD, Scott DJ, Villarroel M, User guide and documentation for the MIMIC II database, MIMIC-II database version Volume 2 Issue 95. 2009

26

Neamatullah I, Douglass MM, Li-wei HL, Reisner A, Villarroel M, Long WJ, Szolovits P, Moody GB, Mark RG, Clifford GD, Automated de-identification of free-text medical records, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2008 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-8-32.

25

Clifford GD, Clifford RH, Blaya JA, Fraser H SF, Medical Information Systems: A Foundation for Healthcare Technologies in Developing Countries, BioMedical Engineering OnLine https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-7-18.

24

Aboukhalil A, Nielsen L, Saeed M, Mark RG, Clifford GD, Reducing false alarm rates for critical arrhythmias using the arterial blood pressure waveform, Journal of Biomedical Informatics Volume 41, Issue 3, (Pages 442-451) jun 2008 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2008.03.003. 2008

23

Wolfberg AJ, Derosier DJ, Roberts T, Syed Z, Clifford GD, Acker D, Plessis AD, A comparison of subjective and mathematical estimations of fetal heart rate variability, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 21(2): 101–104. doi: 10.1080/14767050701836792.

22

Wolfberg A, Syed Z, Clifford GD, Derosier DJ, Tin A, Plessis AD, Entropy of fetal EKG associated with intrapartum fever, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 197 Issue 6 2007

21

Li Q, Mark RG, Clifford GD, Robust heart rate estimation from multiple asynchronous noisy sources using signal quality indices and a Kalman filter, Physiol Meas. 2008 Jan; 29(1): 15–32. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/29/1/002.

20

Lian J, Clifford GD, Müssig D, Lang V, Open source model for generating RR intervals in atrial fibrillation and beyond, Biomed Eng Online. 2007 Mar 2;6:9.

19

Sameni R, Shamsollahi MB, Jutten C, Clifford GD, A nonlinear Bayesian filtering framework for ECG denoising,
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007 Dec;54(12):2172-85.

18

Sameni R, Clifford GD, Jutten C, Shamsollahi MB, Multichannel ECG and Noise Modeling: Application to Maternal and Fetal ECG Signals, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, December 2007

17

Li Q, Mark RG, Clifford GD, Heart Rate Estimation Algorithm Based on Signal Quality Estimation and Kalman Filter, Chinese Journal of Medical Physics Volume 6. 2007

16

Clifford GD, Review of "Biomedical Informatics; Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine" by Edward H. Shortliffe and James J. Cimino, BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2006 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-5-61.

15

Clifford GD, A novel framework for signal representation and source separation: Applications to filtering and segmentation of biosignals, GARI D. CLIFFORD, J. Biol. Syst., 14, 169. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218339006001830.

14

He T, Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Application of independent component analysis in removing artefacts from the electrocardiogram, ScientificWorldJournal. 2013 May 20;2013:896056. doi: 10.1155/2013/896056

13

Bailón R, Sörnmo L, Laguna P, ECG-derived respiratory frequency estimation, Advanced methods and tools for ECG data analysis Volume 1. 2006

12

Clifford GD, Shoeb A, McSharry PE, Janz BA, Model-based filtering, compression and classification of the ECG, International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism Volume 7 Issue 1 (Pages 158-161). 2005

11

Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Quantifying errors in spectral estimates of HRV due to beat replacement and resampling, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005 Apr;52(4):630-8.

10

Janz BA, Saeed M, Frassica J, Clifford GD, Mark RG, Development and Optimization of a Critical Care Alert and Display (CCAD) System using Retrospective ICU Databases, AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005:994.

9

Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Segmenting cardiac-related data using sleep stages increases separation between normal subjects and apnoeic patients, Physiol Meas. 2004 Dec;25(6):N27-35.

8

Taigang H, Clifford GD, Tarassanko L, Application of ICA in removing artefacts from the ECG, Neural Processing Letters Volume 10 Issue 1 (Pages 1-5). 2004

7

An ES, Clifford GD, Kim B, Lee BH, Nam DS, Shim EB, Youn CH, QoS Quorum-Constrained Resource Management in Wireless Grid, IFIP International Conference on Network and Parallel Computing NPC 2004: Network and Parallel Computing (Pages 65-72). 2004

6

Nam DS, Youn CH, Lee HB, Clifford GD, Healey J, Information Systems and Information Technologies (ISIT) Workshop, Grid Session-QoS-Constrained Resource Allocation for a Grid-Based Multiple Source Electrocardiogram Application, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 3043 (Pages 352-359). 2004

5

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, A comparison of nonlinear noise reduction and independent component analysis using a realistic dynamical model of the electrocardiogram, Proceedings Volume 5467, Fluctuations and Noise in Biological, Biophysical, and Biomedical Systems II; (2004); doi: 10.1117/12.548726

4

Clifford GD, McSharry PE, A nonlinear artificial model for generating realistic correlated ECG, BP and respiration,
Proc. 17th Int. EURASIP Biosignal Conf (Pages 358-360) 2004

3

Youn CH, Kim B, Nam BH, Lee, Shim EB, Clifford GD, Healey J, Resource reconfiguration scheme based on temporal quorum status estimation in computational grids, International Conference on Information Networking ICOIN 2004: Information Networking. Networking Technologies for Broadband and Mobile Networks (pages 699-707)

2

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Smith LA, A dynamical model for generating synthetic electrocardiogram signals, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Volume 50 Issue 3 March 2003 Page(s): 289 - 294 INSPEC Accession Number: 7550844 DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2003.808805

1

Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Townsend N, Detection of ectopic beats in the electrocardiogram using an auto-associative neural network, Neural Processing Letters August 2001, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 15–25

Conference

132

Shashikumar SP, Shah A, Clifford GD, Nemati S, Detection of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation using Attention based Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Networks, 24th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD 2018), London, UK, 19-23 August 2018 (22% acceptance rate)

131

Clifford GD, Combining multiple cardiac output estimators to reduce prediction error, (2017) Journal of Electrocardiology, Volume 50, Issue 6, 858

130

Vest AN, Li Q, Liu C, Nemati S, Shah A, Clifford GD, Benchmarking heart rate variability toolboxes, Volume 50, Issue 6, (Pages 744–747) 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.08.006.

129

Shashikumar SP, Shah AJ, Li Q, Clifford GD, Nemati S, A deep learning approach to monitoring and detecting atrial fibrillation using wearable technology, Biomedical & Health Informatics (BHI), 2017 IEEE EMBS International Conference DOI: 10.1109/BHI.2017.7897225.

128

Mahdi A, Clifford GD, Payne SJ, A model for generating synthetic arterial blood pressure, Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine Physiological Measurement, Volume 38, Number 3. 8 February 2017

127

Clifford GD, Liu C, Moody B, Lehman LH, Silva I, Li Q, Johnson AE, Mark RG, AF Classification from a short single lead ECG recording: the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2017, Computing in Cardiology 2017; VOL 44 DOI:10.22489/CinC.2017.065-469.

126

Shah AJ, Fang S, Pimple P, Lewis T, Goldberg J, Bliwise D, Alonso A, Clifford GD, Hall M, Bremner JD, Vaccarino V, Association Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Sleep Dysfunction In Male Veteran Twins PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Volume 79 Issue 4. May 1 2017

125

Clifford GD, E-health in low to middle income countries, Journal of medical engineering & technology Volume 40 Issue 7-8 (Pages 336-341) 2016 Taylor & Francis https://doi.org/10.1080/03091902.2016.1256081.

124

Isakadze N, Levantsevych O, Clifford GD, Nemati S, Shah AJ, Development and Evaluation of a Novel Algorithm for Diagnosing Atrial Fibrillation Using Wristband Technology, Circulation Volume 134 Issue Suppl 1 American Heart Association, Inc. 2016

123

Marzbanrad F, Khandoker AH, Kimura Y, Palaniswami M, Clifford GD, Estimating fetal gestational age using cardiac valve intervals, Published in: Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2016 DOI: 10.23919/CIC.2016.7868691

122

Clifford GD, Liu C, Moody B, Springer D, Silva I, Li Q, Mark RG, Classification of normal/abnormal heart sound recordings: The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2016, Published in: Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2016 Electronic DOI: 10.23919/CIC.2016.7868816

121

Liu C, Li Q, Clifford GD, Evaluation of the accuracy and noise response of an open-source pulse onset detection algorithm on pulsatile waveform databases, Published in: Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2016 Electronic DOI: 10.23919/CIC.2016.7868892

120

Nemati S, Ghassemi MM, Clifford GD, Optimal medication dosing from suboptimal clinical examples: A deep reinforcement learning approach, Published in: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2016 IEEE 38th Annual International Conference DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2016.7591355

119

Nemati S, Ghassemi MM, Ambai V, Isakadze N, Levantsevych O, Shah A, Clifford GD, Monitoring and detecting atrial fibrillation using wearable technology Published in: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2016 IEEE 38th Annual International Conference DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2016.7591456

118

Clifford GD, Silva I, Moody B, Li Q, Kella D, Chahin A, Kooistra T, Perry D, Mark RG, False alarm reduction in critical care, Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine Physiological Measurement, Volume 37, Number 8 Physiol Meas. 2016 Aug; 37(8): E5–E23. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/37/8/E5

117

Clifford GD, Silva I, Moody B, Li Q, Kella D, Shahin A, Kooistra T, Perry D, Mark RG, The PhysioNet/computing in cardiology challenge 2015: reducing false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2015 Pages 273-276 Publisher IEEE INSPEC Accession Number: 15800787 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2015.7408639

116

Zhu T, Pimentel M AF, Clifford GD, Clifton DA, Bayesian fusion of algorithms for the robust estimation of respiratory rate from the photoplethysmogram, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Pages 6138-6141

115

Bilderbeck AC, Saunders KEA, Clifford GD, Tsanas A, Osipov M, Harrison PJ, Harmer CJ, Nobre AC, Geddes JR, Goodwin GM, Daily and weekly mood ratings: relative contributions to the differentiation of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, BIPOLAR DISORDERS Volume 17 Pages 129-130 Publisher WILEY-BLACKWELL

114

Zhu TT, Dunkley N, Behar J, Clifton DA, Clifford GD, Pimentel MAF, The framework of the BCLA and its applications 27 May 2015

113

Clifford GD, Comparative analysis of polysomnographic signals for classifying obstructive sleep apnoea, University of Oxford 2015

112

Andreotti F, Behar J, Zaunseder S, Clifford GD, Oster J, Evaluation of non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms using non-stationary mixtures, Congr. Bras. Eng. Biom'edica 2015

111

Tateishi Y, Clifford GD, Hopkins M, Thomas T, Depressed heart rate variability predicts outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, Critical Care Medicine: December 2014 - Volume 42 - Issue 12 - p A1490 doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000458037.18258.e8 Poster Session: Neuroscience 3

110

Clifford GD, Arteta C, Zhu T, Pimentel M AF, M Santos, Domingos J, Maraci M, Behar J, Oster J, A scalable mHealth system for noncommunicable disease management, Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2014 DOI: 10.1109/GHTC.2014.6970259

109

Alvi MS, Andreotti F, Oster J, Zaunseder S, Clifford GD, Behar J, fecgsyngui: A GUI interface to fecgsyn for simulation of maternal-foetal activity mixtures on abdominal electrocardiogram recordings, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

108

Springer DB, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Support vector machine hidden semi-markov model-based heart sound segmentation, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

107

Johnson A EW, Behar J, Andreotti F, Clifford GD, Oster J, R-peak estimation using multimodal lead switching, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

106

Tsanas A, Clifford GD, Vartela V, Sfirakis P, Quantitative insights into the closed loop cardiovascular system using an electrical lumped element physiological model, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

105

Johnson A EW, Kramer AA, Clifford GD, Data preprocessing and mortality prediction: The Physionet/CinC 2012 challenge revisited, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

104

Andreotti F, Behar J, Oster J, Clifford GD, Malberg H, Zaunseder S, Optimized modelling of maternal ECG beats using the stationary wavelet transform, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

103

Pimentel M AF, Santos MD, Springer DB, Clifford GD, Hidden semi-Markov model-based heartbeat detection using multimodal data and signal quality indices, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

102

Springer DB, Brennan T, Hitzeroth J, Mayosi BM, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Robust heart rate estimation from noisy phonocardiograms, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

101

Behar J, Andreotti F, Oster J, Clifford GD, A Bayesian Filtering Framework for accurate extracting of the non-invasive FECG morphology, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014

100

Zhu T, Behar J, Papastylianou T, Clifford GD, CrowdLabel: A crowdsourcing platform for electrophysiology, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2014 Pages 789-792 Publisher IEEE INSPEC Accession Number: 14947584

99

Palmius N, Osipov M, Bilderbeck AC, Goodwin GM, Saunders K, Tsanas A, Clifford GD, A multi-sensor monitoring system for objective mental health management in resource constrained environments, 2014 DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0764

98

Pimentel MAF, Santos MD, Arteta C, Domingos JS, Maraci MA, Clifford GD, Respiratory rate estimation from the oscillometric waveform obtained from a non-invasive cuff-based blood pressure device, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944456

97

Stroux L, Clifford GD, The Importance of Biomedical Signal Quality Classification for Successful mHealth Implementation, 2014 Tech4Dev International Conference UNESCO Chair in Technologies for Development: What is Essential?

96

Sameni R, Jutten C, Shamsollahi MB, Clifford GD, Extraction of fetal cardiac signals, 2014 Patent office: US / Patent number: 20100137727 / Application number: US 12/624,175

95

Springer DB, Brennan T, Zuhlke LJ, Abdelrahman HY, Ntusi N, Clifford GD, Mayosi BM, Tarassenko L, Signal quality classification of mobile phone-recorded phonocardiogram signals, Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2014 IEEE International Conference DOI: 10.1109/ICASSP.2014.6853814

94

Bond R, Finlay DD, Clifford GD, Drew B, Breen C, Guldenring D, Gallagher AG, Eye tracking technology and the 12-lead electrocardiogram: Where the experts look?

39th Annual Conference of the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiography 2014
93

Xue Y, Li Q, Jin L, Feng L, Clifton DA, Clifford GD, Detecting Adolescent Psychological Pressures from Micro-Blog, International Conference on Health Information Science HIS 2014: Health Information Science

92

Behar J, Wolfberg A, Zhu T, Oster J, Niksch A, Mah D, Chun T, Greenberg J, Tanner C, Evaluation of the fetal QT interval using non-invasive fetal ECG technology, Harrop J, Esbroeck AV, Alexander A, McCarroll M, Drake T, Silber A, Sameni R, Ward J, Clifford GD, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Volume 210 Issue 1 2014

91

Fathima SF, Palmius N, Clifton D, Rohloff P, Clifford GD, Clifford RH, Sanitation-related disease surveillance using community health promoters and mobile phone technology, Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Low Resource Settings (AHT 2014) DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0763

90

Daly J, Roebuck A, Palmius N, Morys M, Gilfriche P, Behar J, Clifford GD, SleepCare: obstructive sleep apnoea screening using mobile health technology, Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Low Resource Settings (AHT 2014) DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0765

89

Springer DB, Zühlke LJ, Mayosi BM, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Mobile phone-based rheumatic heart disease diagnosis, Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Low Resource Settings (AHT 2014) DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0761

88

Zhu T, Osipov M, Papastylianou T, Oster J, Clifton DA, Clifford GD, An intelligent cardiac health monitoring and review system, Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Low Resource Settings (AHT 2014) DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0785

87

Stroux L, King NE, Fathima S, Clifford RH, Rohloff P, Clifford GD, A low-cost perinatal monitoring system for use in rural Guatemala, Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Low Resource Settings (AHT 2014) DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0777

86

Pimentel MAF, Santos MD, Maraci MA, Arteta C, Domingos JS, Clifton DA, Clifford GD, A $5 smart blood pressure system, Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Low Resource Settings (AHT 2014) DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0784

85

Papastylianou T, Behar J, Guazzi A, Jorge J, Laranjeira S, Maraci MA, Clifford GD, Hope RA, Thomson P, Smart handpumps: technical aspects of a one-year field trial in rural Kenya, Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Low Resource Settings (AHT 2014) DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.0769

84

Behar J, Wolfberg A, Zhu T, Oster J, Niksch A, Mah D, Chun T, Greenberg J, Tanner C, Harrop J, Esbroeck AV, Alexander A, McCarroll M, Drake T, Silber A, Sameni R, Ward J, Clifford GD, 576: Evaluation of the fetal QT interval using non-invasive fetal ECG technology, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology Volume 210 Issue 1 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2013.10.609

83

Nemati S, Lehman LW H H, Mayaud L, Clifford GD, Adams RP, Time Series Dynamics and Patient State Monitoring: Application to ICU Bedside Predictive Analytics, Machine Learning for Clinical Data Analysis and Healthcare, NIPS Workshop 2013, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, USA

82

Johnson A EW, Kramer A, Vienna VA, Clifford GD, Pre-processing methods for prognostic models, Machine Learning for Clinical Data Analysis and Healthcare, NIPS Workshop 2013, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, USA

81

Behar J, Johnson A EW, Oster J, Clifford GD, An Echo State Neural Network for Foetal ECG Extraction Optimised by Random Search, Machine Learning for Clinical Data Analysis and Healthcare, NIPS Workshop 2013, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, USA

80

Stroux L, Clifford GD, An Affordable Multisensor Perinatal Monitoring Concept - The importance of signal quality indices for successful mHealth implementation, WHO Global Forum on Medical Devices ‘Priority Medical Devices for Universal Health Coverage 2013

79

Raghu A, Devarsetty P, Peiris D, Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Mobile health for Cardiovascular disease risk screening and management in resource-constrained environments, Mobile Med 2013, 1st Conference on Mobile and Information Technologies in Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic

78

Praveen D, Patel A, Raghu A, Clifford GD, Maulik P, SMARTHealth India: Development and Evaluation of an Electronic Clinical Decision Support System for Cardiovascular Diseases in India, Mohammad Abdul Ameer, Lionel Tarrasenko, David Peiris Medicine 2.0'13 (London, UK)

77

Behar J, Oster J, Clifford GD, Non-invasive FECG extraction from a set of abdominal sensors, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2013

76

Colloca R, Johnson A EW, Mainardi L, Clifford GD, A Support Vector Machine approach for reliable detection of atrial fibrillation events, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2013

75

Oster J, Clifford GD, An artificial model of the electrocardiogram during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Computing in Cardiology Volume 40 2013

74

Zhu T, Johnson A EW, Behar J, Clifford GD, Bayesian voting of multiple annotators for improved QT interval estimation, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2013

73

Oster J, Behar J, Colloca R, Li Qi, Li Q, Clifford GD, Open source Java-based ECG analysis software and Android app for atrial fibrillation screening, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2013

72

Johnson A EW, Cholleti SR, Buchman T, Clifford GD, Improved respiration rate estimation using a Kalman filter and wavelet cross-coherence, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2013

71

Xue Y, Li Q, Feng L, Clifton DA, Clifford GD, Towards a Micro-Blog Platform for Sensing and Easing Adolescent Psychological Pressures, UbiComp '13 Adjunct Proceedings of the 2013 ACM conference on Pervasive and ubiquitous computing adjunct publication Pages 215-218 Zurich, Switzerland — September 08 - 12, 2013 ACM New York, NY, USA doi>10.1145/2494091.2494160

70

Silva I, Behar J, Sameni R, Zhu T, Oster J, Clifford GD, Moody GB, Noninvasive Fetal ECG: the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013, Computing in Cardiology 2013

69

Brennan TP, Springer D, Zuhlke L, Abdelrahman H, Clifford GD, Mayosi BM, Tarassenko L, The Use of Expert Annotations to Assess Signal Quality of Phonocardiograms using mStethoscope: a feasibility study, 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 2013

68

Johnson A EW, Kramer AA, Clifford GD, A new severity of illness scale using a subset of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation data elements shows comparable predictive accuracy, Critical care medicine Volume 41 Issue 7 2013

67

Behar J, Guazzi A, Jorge J, Maraci MA, Laranjeira S, Papastylianou T, Thomson P, Clifford GD, Hope RA, Software Architecture to Monitor Handpump Performance in Rural Kenya, Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of IFIP working group 9.4, 2013 Ocho Rios, Jamaica

66

Clifford GD, Oster J, Pietquin O, Geist M, Periodic Artifact Reduction From Biomedical Signals, https://hal-supelec.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00869739 October 4, 2013

65

Osipov M, Wulff K, Foster RG, Clifford GD, Multiscale entropy of physical activity as an objective measure of activity disorganization in a context of schizophrenia, IX Congress of Informatics in Health 2013, Havana, Cuba

64

Carspecken CW, Arteta C, Clifford GD, Telespiro: A low-cost mobile spirometer for resource-limited settings, Point-of-Care Healthcare Technologies (PHT), 2013

63

Krug JW, Rose G, Clifford GD, Oster J, EKG-basierte Triggerung für die kardiale Ultrahochfeld-Magnetresonanztomographie, Automatisierungsverfahren für die Medizin Volume 18 2013

62

Johnson AEW, Dunkley N, Mayaud L, Tsanas A, Kramer AA, Clifford GD, Patient Specific Predictions in the Intensive Care Unit Using a Bayesian Ensemble, Computing in Cardiology (CinC), 2012

61

Daly J, Monasterio V, Clifford GD, vA Neonatal Apnoea Monitor for Resource-Constrained Environments,

Computing in Cardiology (CinC), 2012
60

Behar J, Oster J, Li Q, Clifford GD, A Single Channel ECG Quality Metric, Computing in Cardiology (CinC), 2012

59

Mayaud L, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Genetic Algorithm for feature selection: application to prediction of mortality during hypotensive episodes in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis, 5 May 2012

58

Clifford GD, Oster J, Llinares R, Tse Z, Schmidt E, Realistic MHD Modeling Based on MRI Blood Flow Measurements, The International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 20th Scientific Meeting & Exhibition

57

Wolfberg AJ, Clifford GD, Ward J, Fetal ECG Monitoring, Patent number: 20120016209 / Application number: 13/113293 2012

56

Gederi E, Clifford GD, Fusion of image and signal processing for the detection of obstructive sleep apnea, Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI), 2012 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Pages 890-893 DOI: 10.1109/BHI.2012.6211731

55

Clifford GD, Vital sign monitoring and analysis in acute coronary syndrome patients, 2012 University of Oxford

54

Krug JW, Clifford GD, Rose GH, Oster J, The limited applicability of wiener filtering to ECG signals disturbed by the MHD effect, The Proceedings of EUSIPCO 2012 Conference, August 27-31, Bucharest, Romania Pages 959-963 2012

53

Wolfberg AJ, Clifford GD, Ward J, Fetal ECG Monitoring, Tufts Medical Center, Inc., E-Trolz, Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2011

52

Clifford GD, Lopez D, Li Q, Rezek I, Signal quality indices and data fusion for determining acceptability of electrocardiograms collected in noisy ambulatory environments, Computing in Cardiology Pages (285-8) 2011

51

Vilakazi CB, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Distinguishing between supply ischaemic and non-supply ischaemic ST events using a relevance vector machine, Computing in Cardiology Pages 633-666 2011

50

Clifford GD, Arteta C, Domingos JS, Pimentel MAF, Santos MD, C Chiffot, Springer D, Raghu A, Low-cost blood pressure monitor device for developing countries, International Conference on Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare MobiHealth 2011: Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare (pages 335-342).

49

Lee J, Scott DJ, Villarroel M, Clifford GD, Saeed M, Mark RG, Open-access MIMIC-II database for intensive care research, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Pages 8315-8318 INSPEC Accession Number: 12423709 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6092050

48

Ward J, Robertson J, Sameni R, Wolfberg A, McDonnell C, Clifford GD, 649: Comparison of abdominal sensors to a fetal scalp electrode for fetal ST analysis during labor, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 204 Issue 1 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2010.10.669

47

Monasterio V, Clifford GD, Martınez JP, Comparacion de Técnicas de Separacion de Fuentes para la Deteccion de Alternancias de Onda T en el ECG, XXVIII Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Española de Ingeniería Biomédica (CASEIB 2010). Pages 163-167

46

Llinares R, Clifford GD, A spatio-temporal study of ischemia and the time-frequency coupling variations between the ST amplitude, heart rate and dominant angle, Computers in Cardiology, 2010 Pages 25-28

45

Chen T, Kuan K, Celi L, Clifford GD, Intelligent heartsound fiagnostics on a cellphone using a hands-free kit, AAAI Spring Symposium on Artificial Intelligence for Development (AI-D) 2010

44

Clifford GD, Scott DJ, Villarroel M, User guide and documentation for the MIMIC II database (version 2, release 1), 2010

43

Kuan KL, Szolovits P, Clifford GD, A framework for automated heart and lung sound analysis using a mobile telemedicine platform, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 2010

42

Celi LA, Villaroel M, Davidzon G, Galvin S, Clifford GD, Comparing the performance of customized mortality prediction models using local database against current standard scoring systems, Galvin I, Bunton R, Szolovits P, CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages A357-A357 2009

41

Celi LE, Hug C, Villaroel M, Clifford GD, Mark RG, Issues With Data Mining: Predictive modeling on critically ill patients who develop acute renal failure, CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages A379-A379 2009

40

Campana LM, Clifford GD, Pittman SD, White DP, Malhotra A, Age dependence of heart rate indices in a healthy cohort as measured by phase− rectified signal averaging, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Volume 179 2009

39

Chen TA, Mark RG, Clifford GD, The effect of signal quality on six cardiac output estimators, Comput Cardiol. 2009 Jan 1; 2009(36): 197–200.

38

Khaustov A, Nemati S, Clifford GD, An open-source standard T-wave alternans detector for benchmarking, Comput Cardiol. 2008 Sep 14; 2008: 509–512. doi: 10.1109/CIC.2008.4749090

37

Clifford GD, Nemati S, Sameni R, An artificial multi-channel model for generating abnormal electrocardiographic rhythms, Comput Cardiol. 2008; 35(4749156): 773–776. doi: 10.1109/CIC.2008.4749156

36

Li Q, Clifford GD, Suppress false Arrhythmia alarms of ICU monitors using heart rate estimation based on combined arterial blood pressure and ECG analysis, Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2008. DOI: 10.1109/ICBBE.2008.876

35

Clifford GD, The emerging role of cellphones, 2008

34

Lehman LH, Kyaw TH, Clifford GD, Mark RG, A temporal search engine for a massive multi-parameter clinical information database, Computers in Cardiology, 2007 Pages 637-640

33

Hug CW, Clifford GD, An analysis of the errors in recorded heart rate and blood pressure in the ICU using a complex set of signal quality metrics,
Computers in Cardiology, 2007 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2007.4745567

32

Villarroel MC, Saeed A, Clifford GD, Moody GB, Mark RG, Finding relevant cases in large databases of signals, time series, and clinical data, Computers in Cardiology, 2007 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2007.4745472

31

Clifford GD, Villarroel MC, Model-based determination of QT intervals, Computers in Cardiology, 2006

30

Clifford GD, Aboukhalil A, Sun JX, Zong W, Janz BA, Moody GB, Mark RG, Using the blood pressure waveform to reduce critical false ECG alarms, Computers in Cardiology, 2006

29

Clifford GD, Method and device for filtering, segmenting, compressing and classifying oscillatory signals, 2006

28

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, ECGSYN-a realistic ECG waveform generator, Volume 10 (2006)

27

Clifford GD, Azuaje F, McSharry P, Advanced methods and tools for ECG 332 data analysis, Volume 3 (2006)

26

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Nonlinear filtering techniques, Advanced methods and tools for ECG data analysis 2006

25

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Models for ECG and RR Interval Processes, Advanced methods and tools for ECG data analysis 2006

24

Clifford GD, Oefinger MB, ECG acquisition, storage, transmission, and representation,
Advanced methods and tools for ECG analysis 2006

23

Clifford GD, Linear filtering methods, Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Data Analysis 2006

22

Reisner AT, Clifford GD, Mark RG, The physiological basis of the electrocardiogram, 2006

21

Clifford GD, ECG statistics, noise, artifacts, and missing data, Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis Pages 2006

20

Clifford GD, Azuaje F, McSharry PE, Advanced methods and tools for ECG data analysis, 2006

19

Janz BA, Clifford GD, Mietus JE, Mark RG, Multivariable analysis of sedation, activity, and agitation in critically ill patients using the Riker scale ECG, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, Computers in Cardiology, 2005 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2005.1588209

18

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, A statistical model of the sleep-wake dynamics of the cardiac rhythm, Computers in Cardiology, 2005 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2005.1588170

17

Clifford GD, Zapanta LF, Janz BA, Mietus JE, Youn CY, Mark RG, Segmentation of 24-hour cardiovascular activity using ECG-based sleep/sedation and noise metrics, Computers in Cardiology, 2005 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2005.1588171

16

Clifford GD, McSharry PE, Method to filter ECGs and evaluate clinical parameter distortion using realistic ECG model parameter fitting, Computers in Cardiology, 2005 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2005.1588204

15

Clifford GD, Singular value decomposition and independent component analysis, J. Biomedical and Image Processing 2005

14

Healey J, Clifford GD, Kontothanassis L, McSharry PE, An open-source method for simulating atrial fibrillation using ECGSYN, Computers in Cardiology, 2004 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2004.1442964

13

Abdala OT, Clifford GD, Saeed M, Reisner A, Moody G, Henry I, Mark RG, The annotation station: an open-source technology for annotating large biomedical databases, Computers in Cardiology, 2004 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2004.1443030

12

Wang H, Azuaje F, Clifford GD, Jung B, Black N, Methods and tools for generating and managing ecg ML-based information, Computers in Cardiology, 2004 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2004.1443003

11

Shu J, Clifford GD, Long WJ, Moody GB, Szolovits P, Mark RG, An open-source, interactive Java-based system for rapid encoding of significant events in the ICU using the Unified Medical Language System, Computers in Cardiology, 2004 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2004.1442906

10

Clifford GD, McSharry PE, Generating 24-hour ECG, BP and respiratory signals with realistic linear and nonlinear clinical characteristics using a nonlinear model, Computers in Cardiology, 2004 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2004.1443037

9

Douglass M, Clifford GD, Reisner A, Moody GB, Mark RG, Computer-assisted de-identification of free text in the MIMIC II database, Computers in Cardiology, 2004 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2004.1442942

8

Clifford GD, McSharry PE, A realistic coupled nonlinear artificial ECG, BP, and respiratory signal generator for assessing noise performance of biomedical signal processing algorithms, Proceedings Volume 5467, Fluctuations and Noise in Biological, Biophysical, and Biomedical Systems II; (2004); doi: 10.1117/12.544525

7

Nam DS, Youn C, Lee BH, Clifford GD, Healey J, QoS-constrained resource allocation for a grid-based multiple source electrocardiogram application, International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications ICCSA 2004: Computational Science and Its Applications

6

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Open-source software for generating electrocardiogram signals,
Medical Physics (physics.med-ph); Biological Physics (physics.bio-ph) 2003

5

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Smith LA, Method for generating an artificial RR tachogram of a typical healthy human over 24-hours, Computers in Cardiology, 2002 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2002.1166748

4

Clifford GD, McSharry PE, Tarassenko L, Characterizing artefact in the normal human 24-hour RR time series to aid identification and artificial replication of circadian variations in human beat to beat heart rate using a simple threshold, Computers in Cardiology, 2002 DOI: 10.1109/CIC.2002.1166724

3

Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Townsend N, One-pass training of optimal architecture auto-associative neural network for detecting ectopic beats, Electronics Letters Volume 37 Issue 18, 30 Aug 2001 DOI: 10.1049/el:20010762

2

Tarassenko L, Townsend N, Clifford GD, Mason L, Burton J, Price J, Medical signal processing using the software monitor, (2001) DOI: 10.1049/ic:20010098

1

Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Townsend N, Fusing conventional ECG QRS detection algorithms with an auto-associative neural network for the detection of ectopic beats, Signal Processing Proceedings, 2000. WCCC-ICSP 2000. 5th International Conference DOI: 10.1109/ICOSP.2000.893412

Books and Book Chapters

11

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Nonlinear filtering techniques. Ch6 in: Clifford G.D., Azuaje, F., McSharry P.E. Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis. October 2006.

10

Clifford GD, Linear Filtering Methods. Ch5 in: Clifford G.D., Azuaje, F., McSharry P.E. Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis. October 2006.

9

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Models for ECG and RR interval processes. Ch4 in: Clifford G.D., Azuaje, F., McSharry P.E. Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis. October 2006

8

Clifford GD, ECG statistics, noise, artefacts and missing data. Ch3 in: Clifford G.D., Azuaje, F., McSharry P.E. Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis. October 2006.

7

Clifford GD, Oefinger MB, ECG acquisition, storage, transmission and representation. Ch2 in: Clifford G.D., Azuaje, F., McSharry P.E. Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis. October 2006.

6

Reisner A, Clifford GD, Mark RG, The Physiological Basis of the Electrocardiogram Ch1 in: Clifford G.D., Azuaje, F., McSharry P.E. Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis. October 2006.

5

Clifford GD, Azuaje F, McSharry PE Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Analysis, October 2006.

4

Oster J, Clifford GD, Signal quality indices for state space electrophysiological signal processing and vice versa, Advanced State Space Methods for Neural and Clinical Data (Pages 345-359) 31 August 2015 doi:10.1017/CBO9781139941433.016.

3

Raghu A, Praveen D, Peiris D, Tarassenko L, Clifford GD, Lessons from the evaluation of a clinical decision support tool for cardiovascular disease risk management in rural india, Technologies for Development (Pages 199-209) 2015

2

Li Q, Clifford GD, Signal Processing: False Alarm Reduction, Secondary Analysis of Electronic Health Records (Pages 391-403) 2016 doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43742-2_27.

1

Clifford GD, Signal processing methods for heart rate variability, D.Phil Thesis, Dept. of Engineering Science 2002, University of Oxford,

Thesis

1

Clifford GD, Statistical Conformal Field Theory and Information Loss in the Renormalisation Group, Masters Thesis, University of Southampton

Other Material

2

Clifford GD, Blind Source Separation: Principal & Independent Component Analysis, Chapter 15 for HST-582J/6.555J/16.456J Biomedical Signal and Image Processing 2005-2018.

1

Clifford GD, Fetal & Maternal ECG Blind Source Separation Lab HST582J/6.555J/16.456J Biomedical Signal and Image Processing Spring 2005